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English Grammar in Use (13) Present Perfect (I have done)

4:25 AM / Posted by 2easy_Team /

Present Perfect (I have done)

(A) Study this example situation:

Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it. 

He has lost his key.

"He has lost his key" means that he lost it a short time ago and he still doesn't have it.

This is the present perfect (simple) tense:

I/we/they/you have (= I've, etc.) lost

he/she has (= he's, etc.) lost

I (etc.) haven't lost

he/she hasn't

has he/she lost

have you (etc.) lost?

We form the present perfect with have/has + the past participle. The past participle often ends in -ed (opened, decided), but many important verbs are irregular (lost, written, done, etc.). See Appendix 2.

(B) When we use the present perfect, there is a connection with the present:

· I've lost my key. (= I don't have it now.)

· Jim has gone to Canada. (= He is in Canada or on his way there now.)

(C) We often use the present perfect to give new information or to announce a recent happening:

· I've lost my key. Can you help me look for it?

· Did you hear about Jim? He's gone to Canada.

You can use the present perfect with just (= a short time ago):

· "Would you like something to eat?" "No, thanks. I've just had lunch."

· Hello, have you just arrived?

Use the present perfect with already to say something has happened sooner than expected:

· "Don't forget to mail the letter." "I've already mailed it."

· "When is Tom going to start his new job?" "He has already started."

Note that you can also use the simple past (I did I I lost, etc.) in the above situations.

· I lost my key. Can you help me look for it?

· "Would you like something to eat?" "No thanks. I just had lunch."

· "Don't forget tomai! the letter." "I already mailed it."

(D) Study the difference between gone to and been to:

· Beth is on vacation. She has gone to Italy. (= She is there now or she is on her way there.)

· Tom is back from his vacation. He has been to Italy. (= He was there, but now he has come back.)

(See also Unit 114.)

For the present perfect see also Units 14-19.

For the present perfect and simple past see Units 19-20.



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